Natural Plant Antifreeze helps to protect plants from cold harm and freezing. This is because it is freeze resistant and lowers the freezing point of the plant. This characteristic gives Natural Plant Antifreeze the capability to assist plants against undesired effects. It also stimulates plants to produce antifreeze proteins and antifreeze aminoacids so the plants get stronger against cold and frost temporarily (15-20 days).
These characteristics are not the same for all kinds of plants. Some plants can produce some of these antifreeze proteins or all of them because of their genetic properties. Some plants can not produce any proteins or amino acids.
Natural Plant Antifreeze contains Thiobacillus subspecies and minerals used by these bacteriums. For this reason it is ecological and natural.
- It reduces the effects of late spring cold and early autumn cold.
- It increases resistance of greenhouse plants such as tomatoes, peppers, aubergine, strawberry, banana and carnation to cold effects and freezing, in turn lowering the budget for heating.
- It increases resistance of citrus fruit plants, olive plants and nut-producing plants to the cold and frost. It stops olive crops from tasting bitter.
- It increases vineyard plants and crops’ resistance against the late spring cold, reducing the financial losses of cold damage.
- It increases resistance of the plants that flower during early spring, such as apple, peach, plum, cherry, apricot to cold harm and freezing.
- It extends the growing season, creating a longer harvest opportunity for fresh fruit and vegetables such as potatoes, tomatoes, pepper, aubergine, french beans.
- The effect of Natural Plant Antifreeze can be seen in a short period of time after application.
- The organic ingredients of Natural Plant Antifreeze are easily absorbed and used by plants. Therefore, its effects start in a short period of time. It is important for horticulture.
- It gives plants more photosynthesis capability. Leaves become thicker, stronger and healthier. These properties make plants stronger against the outside effects and illnesses.
- Plants yield more crops and/or produce more flowers.
- It increases the qualities of fruits and vegetables such as taste, odours and colours.
- It lowers the pH value of soil, when applied to soil. Thiobacillus subspecies take the free N of air to the soil and the amount of pure N taken to soil is about 6-8 kg for 1000 m2
- The Thiobacillus subspecies in Natural Plant Antifreeze produces rusticyanin. Rusticyanin, that is absorbed very quickly by the plants, gives plants the ability to produce natural antifreeze proteins. They also help plants to absorb more minerals quicker.
- In the winter season, greenhouses which apply Natural Plant Antifreeze, experience a reduced need for heating. Sometimes, no heat is needed at all.
NPA protects plants from cold and frost in two ways:
1) Freezing point of NPA is very low. It has being recorded in lab tests that at -17Centigrate Degrees NPA did not freeze 2.5 hours and kept it’s temperatures first 90 minutes +2.5 C and remaining time did not drop below +1.5 C. This shows that NPA can have some protection from frost at least 3 hours without any bio-chemical growth.
2) The plants will have heavy photosynthesis activities after Thiobacillus bacteria and their produce of rusticyanin, oxaloacetic acid and piruvic acid being applied with the minerals. These enzymes are proteins and they have large molecules. They have complex structures. Some parts of these enzymes are the minerals. This means that these enzymes are metaloorganic matter molecules. In the product there are enough amounts of minerals same as the ones exists inside the enzymes. Rusticyanin contains cupper. When very small amount of this enzyme is applied to the plants it will be absorbed very easily and will join the biochemical reactions. It will directly or indirectly be responsible for production of new glucoprotains. The plants that can produce these proteins will have resistance to cold and frost.
Piruvic Acid is responsible to the starting point of all the productions of metabolic produce in the photosynthesis as seen in krebs cycle shown below:
Krebs Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation/Electron Transport Chain
There are many compounds that are formed and recycled during the Krebs Cycle (Citirc Acid Cycle). These include oxidized forms of nictotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and their reduced counterparts: NADH and FADH2. NAD+ and FAD are electron acceptors and become reduced while the substrates in the Krebs Cycle become oxidized and surrender their electrons.
The Krebs Cycle begins when the pyruvate formed in the cytoplasm of the cell during glycolysis is transferred to the mitochondria, where most of the energy inherent in glucose is extracted. In the mitochondria, pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA by the enzyme pyruvate carboxlase. In general, Acetyl-CoA condenses with a four carbon compound called oxaloacetate to form a six carbon acid. This six-carbon compound is degraded to a five and four carbon compound, releasing two molecules of carbon dioxide. At the same time, two molecules of NADH are formed. Finally, the C-4 carbon skeleton undergoes three additional reactions in which guanosine triphosphate (GTP), FADH2 and NADH are formed, thereby regenerating oxaloacetate. FADH2 and NADH are passed on to the electron transport chain (see below) that is embedded in the inner mitochondria membrane. GTP is a high-energy compound that is used to regenerate ATP from ADP. Therefore, the main purpose of the Krebs Cycle is to provide high-energy electrons in the form of FADH2 and NADH to be passed onward to the electron transport chain.
The high-energy electrons contained in NADH and FADH2 are passed on to a series of enzyme complexes in the mitochondrial membrane.
Three complexes work in sequence to harvest the energy in NADH and FADH2 and convert it to ATP: NADH-Q reductase, cytochrome reductase and cytochrome oxidase. The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is oxygen. Each successive complex is at lower energy than the former so that each can accept electrons and effectively oxidize the higher energy species. In effect, each complex harvests the energy in these electrons to pump protons across the inner mitochondria membrane, thereby creating a proton gradient. In turn, this electro-potential energy is converted to chemical energy by allowing proton flux back down its chemical gradient and through specific proton channels that synthesize ATP from ADP. Approximately two molecules of ATP are produced during the Kreb cycle reactions, while approximately 26 to 30 ATP are generated by the electron transport chain. In summary, the oxidation of glucose through the reduction of NAD+ and FADH is coupled to the phosphorylation of ADP to produce ATP. Hence, the process is known as oxidative phosphorylation.
Piruvic acid, rusticyanin and oxaloacetic acid together makes the plants produce AFP heavily and in a short time. These AFP consist of 6 groups of matters. In the biochemical reactions, Oxaloacetic acid produced after the piruvic acid in the plants. If we give these three matters with many mineral ions and their chelates together to the plants they will intake them easily.
The bacteria contains in our product will continue producing the same matters after spraying over the plants. This time the necessary pH of the environment is created by Cropaid NPA. Minerals used this time for production obtained from the Cropaid NPA and from the plant itself.
When the bacteria enter the plants, the organic matters will be produced by them. They start production of AFP by reaction with the metal ions from the plant cells and producing new compounds.
Specifically, where the AFP and AAA produced in a short time at plants green organs, leaves and young and green shoots are the areas of these activities and the reactions.
NPA USER INSTRUCTIONS
GENERAL INFORMATION AND USAGE NOTE:
NPA could reduce plants’ freezing point by up to 7 degrees Celsius.
Spray an atomized mist all over the plant until the point of run-off.
To improve yield and quality, apply at blossom and continue spraying every 15 days.
Always dilute NPA with water for all applications. For best results, always use unchlorinated water. If it is not possible, wait until chlorine levels are at a minimum before mixing NPA with the water in the tank. Do not mix with water that has a pH level above 7.0.
NPA will have a different level of effect on different plants. This is based on the plant’s age, genetic properties, its growing environment, temperature and soil conditions and the additional fertilisers used on it. Not every plant can produce Antifreeze proteins and amino acids. If they can produce any, NPA will make them produce more or all of them.
Concentrated NPA has a pH value of 1.9-2.1, which is acidic. It must not be mixed with chemicals and pesticides with a pH level of more than 7 or wetting agents because it will block equipment used for pulverization and NPA will lose all of its effects.
Choose serene weather for all applications. Unless it rains heavily after application, NPA will provide protection after about 6 hours.
For best protection, apply two days before the cold or frosty weather. One application at least 6 hours before the frost, will give good protection.
NPA will not work if the plants are under cold stress. It is recommended to apply at about 10am or 4pm at above 12 degrees Celsius for glasshouse plants and above 9 degrees Celsius for outdoor plants. If this is not possible, apply during the hottest time of the day.
The coverage of 1 kg (litre) of NPA will depend on; a) the atomizing level of the sprayer, b) the plant size, c) the plant surface area, and d) the distance between the plants.
This product will temporarily assist the plants as described for up to 15 days but will not enable the plants to grow outside of their normal habitats.
In greenhouses, NPA will increase plants’ resistance to cold and frost injuries. Heating levels could be lowered and in some cases heating may not be needed at all.
The biomineral content of NPA is easily absorbed by the leaves, stem and roots of the plants. In a short period of time, plants begin to have heavy metabolic activity and their content of amino-acids, proteins, sugar, oil, vitamin, mineral and specially antifreeze proteins will increase. Fruits become bigger, heavier, shinyer, more tasty and will have increased quality and yield.
NPA gives plants more photosynthesis capabilities. This increases osmotic pressure and the water and nutrition intake in the roots of the plants. Therefore, plants can resist heat and arid environment better. Leaves become thicker and healthier. These properties make plants stronger against the outside undesired injuries.
When NPA is applied to soil, it lowers the pH level. Thiobacillus spp bacteria take the free Nitrogen from the air to the soil and the amount of pure Nitrogen taken to the soil is about 60-80 kg for per hectare in a year.
NPA will provide better results on healthy plants. It will not, however, cure a plants’ existing injuries.
TURF: Before seeds or Turf are planted:Prepare the area by coating it with an atomized mist of our solution (100 litres of water per 1 Litre of NPA).
Then, break any clumps of mud and rake the ground to make it level. Plant the seeds and apply fertilisers or peat.
Make an earth and sand mixture (25% earth, 25% fine sand, 50% peat) and put through a filter to reduce to a finer consistency. Evenly over the ground 2cm thick and compress down with a cylinder press. After this, water it for the first time by applying 200 litres of water mixed with 1litre of NPA.
Every 15-20 days, apply an atomized solution of 200–250 litres of water per 1 Litre of NPA and spray over the grass to the point of run off. This amount will cover approx 1000m2 of area. Doing this will produce strong, green grass. After every grass cutting session or every week, apply the same solution of NPA for best results. NPA has no effects on the yellow grass if it is already at the end of its life and it is too old and long! During winter and summer, gardens and stadiums should always be green.
STRAWBERRIES: Before planting: Dip seeds/seedlings into the solution (450ml Cropaid NPA diluted with 100 litres of water). Apply on the 7th and 17th day after planting and as soon as flowering occurs: Spray an atomized fine mist all over the plant. In the case of cold and frost risk, repeat every 7-15 days. To improve yield and quality apply every 15 days.
POTATOES: Before planting: Dip potato tubers in the solution (450ml Cropaid NPA diluted with 100 litres of water) or spray as a fine mist. The next application should be done by spraying an atomized mist all over the foliage when the foliage is starting to emerge. In the case of cold and frost risk, application should be repeated every 7-10 days.
CUT FLOWERS: For open fields and greenhouses when there is a cold and frost risk: At every stage of growth, NPA (450ml NPA diluted with 100 litres of water) application should be done by spraying an atomized mist all over the foliage. It is recommended to do an initial test on flowers in case of color change, in which case avoid spraying buds and flowers. NPA will extend the life of cut flowers provided that the water in the vase has been mixed with NPA as described above and if they are sprayed every 15 days before being cut.
HOUSE OR GARDEN POTTED PLANTS: To protect from cold and frost injuries or reduce damage to a minimum: Mix 500ml NPA with 100 litres of water and spray as a fine mist all over outdoor potted plants. To improve appearance and lifespan of indoor plants spray every 15 days.
APPLE & PEAR: These types of fruit trees should be treated for the first time immediately after the leaves fall during autumn. To protect from frost and cold injuries, the second application should be done when buds are changing to flowers and young fruits. Applications during spring require weather forecast observation in order to apply it at the latest, 2 days before frost risk. Use 500ml NPA diluted with 100 litres of water. After the spring cold and frost threat is over apply every 15-20 days to improve mineral intake, strength and quality.
CHERRY, NECTARINE, APRICOT: Use 500ml NPA diluted with 100 litres of water for all applications. First application should be done in autumn after all the leaves have fallen. Next application should be done in spring when the buds start growing, followed by another application during the flowering time. Follow the weather forecast and apply at least 2 days before cold and frost.
TOMATO, PEPPER AND AUBERGINE: This group of plants should be first treated when they are seeds. Before planting, the seeds should be put on a dry and clean cloth and sprayed with a solution of 500ml NPA diluted with 100 litres of water. Mix well and wait until they are dry before planting. Second application should be done if there is a risk of cold and frost after they emerge. To improve yield and quality, apply at blossom and continue spraying every 15 days.
LETTUCE: First application should be done after the seeds emerge. After this, apply 2 days before if there is a risk of cold and frost. Use 450ml NPA diluted with 100 litres of water every 15-20 days.
CARROT, PARSNIP: Before planting the seeds they should be placed on a dry and clean cloth and sprayed with 500ml NPA diluted with 100 litres of water. Mix well and dry before planting.
Second application: After emergence, if there is a risk of cold and frost. To improve yield and quality continue applying every 15 days.
SUGAR CANE: Before planting the seeds, they should be put on a dry and clean cloth and sprayed with 500ml NPA diluted with 100 litres of water. Mix well and dry before planting. Second application should be done after emergence if there is a risk of cold and frost during spring. If the risk continues, apply once every week. To improve yield and quality, continue applying every 15 days.
WHEAT, BARLEY, RYE, OATS: Before planting the seeds, they should be placed on a dry and clean cloth and sprayed with 500ml NPA diluted with 100 litres of water. Mix well and wait until dry before planting. Second application should be done after emergence and third application at blossom.
BEANS, CHICKPEAS, PEAS: NPA will protect this group of plants from cold and frost and increase yield. Before planting, the seeds should be sprayed with 450ml NPA diluted with 100 litres of water and mixed well. Second application should be done after emergence if there is a risk of cold and frost. Apply during bloom, every 15-20 days to improve mineral intake, yield and strength.
KIWI: To protect from cold and frost, apply twice in autumn 15-20 days apart. In spring, apply once when the buds start to appear. Following application should be done during bloom. To improve mineral intake, yield and strength, apply every 15-20 days. Use 500ml NPA diluted with 100 litres of water.
CITRUS FRUIT, FRUIT TREES WITH NO LEAF FALL: First Application: In autumn during fruit growth. Second Application: One week before harvest. Third Application: If there is a risk of cold and frost during spring. To improve mineral intake, yield and strength apply every 15-20 days. Use 500ml NPA diluted with 100 litres of water.
PLUM: First Application: In autumn after all the leaves have fallen. In spring, apply when the buds start growing and during blossom. Apply every 7-15 days if there is a risk of cold and frost during spring. To improve mineral intake, yield and strength – apply every 15-20 days. Use 500ml NPA diluted with 100 litres of water.
GRAPEVINE: First Application: In autumn after all the leaves have fallen. Apply two days before the cold and frost risk in spring when the buds are opening and the stems are around 10-20cm. To improve mineral intake, yield and strength, apply every 15-20 days. Use 500ml NPA diluted with 100 litres of water.
WALNUT: To protect young plants, male and female flowers from cold and frost, first application should be done in spring at the beginning of bloom. After this, apply 2 days before the risk of cold and frost. To improve mineral intake, yield and strength apply every 15-20 days. Use 500ml NPA diluted with 100 litres of water.
HAZELNUT: First application should be done after the leaves have fallen in autumn. Second application should be done at the end of winter. If there is no cold and frost warning, appearance of the fruits would be the right time to start applications. To improve mineral intake, yield and strength, apply every 15-20 days. Use 500ml NPA diluted with 100 litres of water.
BRASSICAS: These types of plants should be sprayed atomized before they are planted. Due to their waxy leaves, use spray equipment that sprays as a fine fog to create better coverage. To improve mineral intake, yield and strength apply every 15-20 days. Use 500ml NPA diluted with 100 litres of water.